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Glazed and porcelain veneered groups caused the least volume loss to the opposing enamel, and these findings were corroborated by the SEM findings, which show a significantly smaller abrasion area for steatite abraded against glazed Fig. The SEM of the opposing surfaces Fig. The resulting roughness may be reduced depending on the type of material and the technique applied for polishing, 21 , 23 but no standard method has been defined for polishing monolithic zirconia restorations. Therefore, the first hypothesis, which stated that surface condition has an effect on the roughness of zirconia, is accepted.
The porcelain veneered surface did not receive a glaze layer or any additional surface treatment Fig. We also aimed at investigating the effect of the porcelain on the opposing enamel. The smoothness of the glazed surface was confirmed by the similar roughness values between glazed zirconia and polished control zirconia before CS, and this finding is in agreement with previous studies.
This increase in surface roughness was due to the removal of the most superficial and smooth surface, which exposed the inner structure of the glaze layer, with voids, bubbles, and irregularities Fig. Figure 3B shows evidence of voids and bubbles spread throughout the glaze layer, keeping roughness values at high levels for the lifetime of the restoration or until the glaze material is completely removed.
A clinical study has previously shown that the glaze layer can be removed within the first six months after the installation of the restoration. The similar roughness values between ground and repolished groups were possibly due to the simplicity of the polishing procedure in the in vitro condition. The specimens were flat and fully accessible, and the operator could control the pressure applied.
An intraoral occlusal adjustment may show different results, due to all the limitations associated with an in vivo procedure. Therefore, one should not assume that the intraoral polishing would be able to generate a level of surface polishing similar to the polishing provided by this study when occlusal adjustments are performed in the clinical scenario.
For a more comprehensive analysis, comparison of the roughness values before and after the application of chewing simulation for the ground and repolished groups can be combined with the SEM images of the surfaces Fig. Different from the similar roughness values Table 1 , SEM indicated the smoothening of the abraded area after chewing simulation for both ground and repolished specimens.
Therefore, the roughness reading incorporated both abraded and non-abraded areas. Only a technique sensitive enough to particularly scan the abraded surface would be able to characterize changes in surface topography of this magnitude. In the absence of such technique, it is recommended to combine quantitative analyses with the qualitative assessment of the surface through higher magnification imaging techniques. The volumetric loss measurement is considered the most effective way to assess wear of the opposing surface.
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Also, the wear of the steatite was rather affected by the surface material - zirconia, glaze or porcelain - than by the surface finishing technique - grinding or polishing Fig. Therefore, the second hypothesis, which stated that surface condition has an effect on wear of opposing artificial enamel is accepted. Interestingly, the wear values obtained were in agreement with the micrographs of the steatite obtained after chewing simulation Fig.
The highest volume loss was caused by the control polished zirconia specimens Fig. These results are in agreement with a previous study that reported higher wear of stainless steel indenters abraded against polished zirconia as opposed to those abraded against glazed zirconia. These contradictory results may be explained by the methods employed in other studies.
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While Janyavula et al. The 80 N load was applied because, based on previous studies, this is considered a high masticatory load that is still within the daily average for an adult without parafunctional habits. Therefore, the present study indicates that the use of zirconia as a monolithic material under clinically relevant masticatory conditions may maximize the wear of the antagonist tooth. The impact of the zirconia polishing technique on zirconia roughness and wear of opposing surface has been demonstrated.
The lower surface hardness of both veneering porcelain and glaze, when compared to the zirconia substrate and to the steatite, implied that glazed Fig. The metastability of Y-TZP tetragonal grains in mouth or room temperature is well known by researchers and clinicians. The application of 1 million masticatory cycles vertical and horizontal loading on the surface of some Y-TZP-based materials has caused significant changes in the materials' mechanical properties in the nanoscale.
Analysis of the cross-section of samples also did not indicate the existence of a micro-cracked layer Fig. The information currently available in the literature on zirconia roughness and subsequent tooth wear is generally associated with either low number of cycles 9 , 14 , 24 or low loading. However, this study still presents limitations. Due to the nature of an in vitro design, variables such as temperature and pH cycles, often present in a clinical scenario, could not be simulated. Additionally, this study employed artificial enamel indenters instead of human enamel cusps in an attempt to minimize anatomic variability, which could have an impact on the measurement of wear.
Further studies of the interaction between zirconia-based prostheses and human enamel are encouraged so that the effect of one surface on another can be realistically estimated. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we concluded that materials with similar composition presented similar roughness values and showed similar degree of wear of opposing artificial enamel after chewing simulation. The surface finishing technique has a significant effect on roughness of monolithic zirconia, even though it does not affect the wear of opposing artificial enamel.
The material applied on zirconia surface affects the wear of opposing artificial enamel when compared to polished zirconia, and the interaction of surface condition and chewing simulation affects the roughness of zirconia. The authors are thankful to King Saud University for the first authors's MSc scholarship NMA and for funding research expenses related to the current study. Lava zirconia was kindly donated by 3M Canada.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Adv Prosthodont v.
J Adv Prosthodont. Published online Jun Find articles by Najm Mohsen Alfrisany. Find articles by Babak Shokati. Find articles by Laura Eva Tam. Find articles by Grace Mendonca De Souza. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.